RACHALSKI, Wanda (1918-)

Wanda lived with her husband Alfred Ludomir in Warsaw. In the fall of 1941 Wanda met at her parents-in-law, Alfred and Anna Rachalski, an 8 years old Jewish girl, Anita.Her father was a physician from Lvov, interned in Romania. Her mother had been a pupil in a school in Przemysl, directed by Wanda's parents.Anita's mother, though provided with false identification, was persecuted by blackmailers and asked the Rachalskis to save her child. They in turn proposed to Wanda to take care of the little girl. So Anita became officially the niece of Wanda's husband. In 1944 Wanda brought home another Jewish girl, Krysia, who had no family. After the Warsaw Uprising, Wanda with both girls, found herself in the Pruszkow camp.She placed Krysia with the Orlowski family at Milanowek and with Anita she moved to Mogily, near Skierniewice, where they stayed till the end of the war. Anita's mother died there. Anita L., now a physician in Poland, wrote in 1978 that her father wished to repay the Rachalskis for saving his daughter. The latter did not want to hear about any material reward, always treating Anita as their beloved niece. Anita added that especially thanks to the care, heart and family warmth she received from Wanda, she was healed not only physically but also psychologically from her complexes of hurt and injustice. See: Grynberg, op. cit.


Franciszka resided in Warsaw.Since June 1944 she hid in her apartment Anna Grajdinger from Rawa Ruska, sheltered before, since 1942, by her brother, Pawel Rustowka. Franciszka also helped other Jews, like Stefan and Irena Duldig, for whom she organized false Kennkarten. Pawel Rustowka does not seem to be recognized as "Righteous". See: Grynberg, op. cit.

RACZYNSKI, Stefan (1921-1995)

Stefan came from a noble family. His parents had a farm at Balingrodek, in the Vilna region. In 1942 they harbored a group of Jews who avoided the massacre. The Raczynskis took under their care a young woman, Soszana, whose parents were killed. Soszana's parents were both teachers of Hebrew, which they spoke at home. Her brother went in 1934 to Israel, to study at the University of Haifa. Soszana's father was killed in 1941; her mother was killed in the ghetto, which Soszana escaped, finding temporary refuge with various Polish families. Finally she met Stefan Raczynski, who took her to their farm. The Raczynski family received her warmly and called her Zuzia (diminutive of Zuzanna). They had many acquaintances, as the Polish scouting had good relations with Jewish Abe Kovner's Zionists. Anti-Semitism there was non-existent. In the winter of 1942 the Germans in an "Aktion" caught many Jews and shot them, except a group of ca. 17 young ones. The Raczynskis and other Polish families helped them. For Chanukah and Christmas of 1942 Stefan's mother prepared a feast for all the Jews who were saved. As some ate only kosher food, she went to Niemenczyn, bought special pots and cooked for them according to their special rules. Denunciations occurred also, like killing of Jews by Polish and Lithuanian bandits. Stefan was arrested, but Soszana managed to free him. Stefan saved her again when the Lithuanians burnt the refuge in which she stayed. He placed her with his father's sister. When some other bandits wanted to shoot both of them, Stefan's aunt run to the priest, who said them that Zuzia is not a Jew, because he himself baptized her. He shamed the bandits, who were later incarcerated. Nobody from Stefan's family asked Soszana to convert to the Catholic religion. Then Stefan moved her to his mother's brother. In 1944 they returned to Vilna. The Germans, retreating before the Russians, burnt the city. This time the Soviets arrested Stefan. Soszana pleaded with them, bringing with her the attestations that he saved many Jews. Stefan was released but they were in utmost misery, as the Soviets took their farm, animals, everything. The young couple decided to go to Israel, not without difficulties, as the new authorities did not want him to give him a passport, and the Israeli embassy the visa. They arrived in Israel in 1960. In Israel the life of poverty continued. Nobody wanted to hear his or her story, except some Jews saved by Stefan, living in America, who sent him an auto. The taxes for it put them in debt, but they were happy to have it. Yad Vashem recognized Stefan as "Righteous" in 1966, but their great poverty continued. The couple felt that nobody cared. Other Poles who saved Jews were in similar conditions. There were cases of maltreating. This found echo in the press, radio and TV. Stefan did not want to appear on TV, as not to shame the young State of Israel, but his grown up children convinced him to go, in order to help others in similar circumstances. In 1985 in that TV show appeared the Israeli president, Herzog, strongly in favor of help to rescuers. The Knesset debated the question and in 1995, under its leader Shevach Weiss (the present ambassador in Poland, who had been also saved by some Poles) decided that such Poles must get help from the State of Israel; this resulted in betterment of their situation. Then the couple started to worry where they will be buried. The rabbi of Tel Aviv, Lau, found a solution. He assigned a portion of the cemetery to the burial of the "Righteous" and their Jewish wife or husband, saying that the "Righteous" has a right to life after death. Stefan died in November of 1995 and has the 32nd place there. Soszana is happy now and writes poetry. She also translated Polish poetry into Hebrew and vice-versa, like the poem by Chaim Chefer, that follows its English translation shown here after all those killed and also in Grynberg. See: Grynberg, op cit. and Isakiewicz, op. cit.


RADLINSKI, Jadwiga, physician

Dr. Radlinski resided in Warsaw and worked in the Warsaw University Surgical Clinic. She belonged to that group of physicians who eliminated the traces of circumcision, operated on noses and ears of Jews, to make them appear less Semitic.
She also led out of the ghetto the two children of the Rotsztejn medical couple. After many trials she placed them in an orphanage where they survived the war. She kept Dr. Cecylia Frendler in her apartment until the Warsaw Uprising (1944). They left Warsaw together. Dr. Frendler settled in the USA. See: Grynberg, op. cit.

RADOMSKI, Zofia, wife
RADWAN-PRZEDPELSKA, Janina (1884-1958)

She was the mother of Stanislawa Karsov-Szymaniewska, (q.v.), and of Marian Przedpelski, a Polish Army officer killed in Auschwitz (prisoner No. 21480), sister of Leszek Przedpelski and aunt of Jerzy Przedpelski, who died in the Warsaw Uprising. She helped the Wermus family with food, first on the "Aryan" side and then in the ghetto; the food was brought there by 14 years old Liliana Szymaniewska, daughter of Stanislawa Karsov-Szymaniewska. The Wermuses did not want to leave the ghetto and perished there. Janina co-operated with her daughter in the intelligence work, consisting in deciphering denunciations addressed to the German authorities and warning endangered people, often Jews. It was also necessary to provide them with false identification, shelter, food and money. Janina, against all rules of security, often gave food to Jewish children who came to her. She could not shelter them due to the objections of her daughter, Stanislawa, who, also against such rules, kept in her home already three such children, two Jewish women and an English soldier escapee from a German POW camp. On top of that, she had a German outpost directly in front of her house. See: Bartoszewski & Lewin, op. cit.

RADWANEK, Aniela (Nella?) (1911-)

Aniela lived in Cracow. During all the years of the occupation she harbored in her apartment a Jewish girl, Miriam Landsberg and intermittently took care of her brother and younger sister. She also sheltered in her home Ida Ran, who escaped from the Plaszow camp. Both girls survived and left Poland. Miriam kept contact with her benefactress. See: Grynberg, op. cit.

RADWANEK, Jerzy, (1919-) pilot and art Professor

Jerzy graduated from the Polish Air Force Academy in Deblin in 1939. He fought in the September campaign, became a POW, but escaped from the camp to return to his native Cracow. Asked to forward abroad Polish intelligence material, he attempted to fly a plane from Poland to Hungary, but he was caught, terribly beaten and sent to Auschwitz, where he stayed from 1940 till 1945. Here he became a member of the secret underground organization. Working as an electrician he had some measure of liberty in the camp. In his toolbox he transported food and medicines, stolen from the Germans and brought them to the Jews, (especially Weigl's vaccine against typhus) whose plight moved him deeply. He often purposefully caused a short circuit in a Jewish compound to be called to fix the light. This gave him the possibility to deliver food and medication, when his guard had a moment of inattention. Once, with a long pole, he tore a piece of meat from the snout of a German dog. He was tortured for that for three consecutive days, being suspended by his arms, tied in the back. Another time he lost his teeth from beatings. They called him "the Jewish uncle", especially cherished by the Jewish women whom he helped. One of them, Helena Hamermesz, recognized him when they met on the occasion of the anniversary of liberation from Auschwitz. After the war Jerzy Radwanek studied art, became a professor and chief of the municipal art department of Cracow. He teaches and takes part in painting exhibitions, continuing his first love, flying. Witold Lilienthal, an engineer, interviewed Jerzy on the turn of 1994-1995 in Montreal and wrote a beautiful account of his exploits.


Helena together with Maria Dicker-Srebrnik (q.v.) and Hanna Rudowicz-Reiss (q.v.) built a shelter for seven (7) Jews. They had escaped the transport to Belzec from Lvov, in August 1942. During two years the three women took care of them. See: Grynberg, op cit

RADZIKOWSKI, Anna, wife?

RADZIO, Helena (1904-1973)
RADZIO, Slawek (1924-1966) son
RADZIO, Jerzy (1925-) son
RADZIO, Maria (1929-1952) daughter

The Radzios lived in Warsaw. In October 1942 Germans drove a column of Jews on the Modlin highway. Slawek and Jerzy led out of that column four (4) people: Lea Batz, her son Leon and his wife Dora Lipszyc and her brother Adam Lipszyc. They hid them in the attic of their home. In that home there lived also a Polish policeman and not far away was an artillery post. The Germans requisitioned for their doctor the only room from which there was an access to the attic. The two brothers in the absence of the doctor led out their charges and took them to the Wieczorkiewicz family at Dabrowka Szlachecka. When the German physician left their house, the fugitives returned to them and remained there until the end of the war. The Wieczorkiewicz family does not seem to be recognized. See: Grynberg, op. cit.

RADZIWILL, Izabela, princess
RADZYMINSKI, Mieczyslaw, son
RAFALSKI, Aniela, wife
RAFALSKI, Bronislawa, daughter
RAFALSKI, Maria, daughter

RAJCHOWSKI, Maria (1909-1989)
RAJCHOWSKI, Ireneusz, son

The Rajchowskis living in Warsaw helped Jewish children, who sneaked from the ghetto to get some food. One such child, Witold Gora, who knew Maria, came to her asking for help. He stayed with the family for half a year, but had to leave as the janitor and neighbors started to get interested in him. In 1986 he attested that he was kept and fed by them without any payment and that Ireneusz, who was then a teenager, defended the Jewish children from the other children who shouted that they are Jews. Ireneusz also led a Jewish girl to a forester at Miszewo, near Warka. See: Grynberg, op. cit.

RAJEWSKI, Eugeniusz Boleslaw

RAJEWSKI, Ewa, physician (not related)
RAJSKI, Wincenty

RAJSZCZAK, Weronika, wife
RAJSZCZAK, Miroslawa, daughter
RAJSZCZAK, Tadeusz, son

Feliks Rajszczak was one of the many who co-operated with the RPZ or Zegota (Council for Aid to Jews). Zegota had ca. one hundred (100) sections. According to a letter by Adolf Berman, the Jewish Secretary of the Zegota, to Teresa Preker(owa), dated Feb. 26, 1977, there were others, especially meritorious in that activity, and he mentioned: Prof. Maria Grzegorzewski, a distinguished theatre artist, Irena Solski, psychologist, Janina Buchholtz-Bukolski (q.v.), Irena Sawicki (q.v.) educator. Further there was Dr. Ewa Rybicki, scouting activist, Irena Kurowski, school principal, Prof. Stanislaw Ossowski and Prof. Maria Ossowski, Dr. Jan Zabinski, zoo director (q.v.) and his wife Antonina, a writer, (q.v.). Still others were Stefania Sempolowski, the unforgettable director of children's theatres, Jan Wesolowski (q.v.) Sylwia Rzeczycki, (q.v.) Maria Laski, Maria Derwisz-Parnowski. Great merits had Zofia Latallo, Zofia Rodziewicz, former Senator, Dr. Regina Fleszar and others. Beside the university educated people there were others, like Waleria Malaczewski, Antonina Roguski, Jadwiga Leszczanin, Zofia Debicki (q.v.). Manual workers were not absent either, like Stanislaw Michalski, tailor, Kajszczak, from Lomianki and Pawel Harmuszko, farmers, Kazimierz Kuc, laborer and many others. Only those who have the letters (q.v.) after their name have been recognized as "Righteous"up to the end of 1999. See: Prekerowa, op. cit.

RAK, Mrs.
RAK-BLASZCZYK, Helena, daughter
RAK, Stefan, son

RAK, Edward (not related)

RAK, Ludwik (not related)
RAK, Maria, wife
RAKOWSKI, Mieczyslawa
RAKSA, Aniela, wife
RATAJCZYK, Wladyslawa, wife
RATOMSKI, Roman, son, physician
RATYNSKI, Stanislaw
RATYNSKI, Natalia, wife
RAUCH, Teofila
RDZANOWSKI, Klara, wife
REGENT, Kazimierz, brother
REGENT, Janina, Kazimierz's wife
REGULA, Alojzy, (Alejs) son
REGULA, Gertruda, (Trudka) daughter
REGULA, Hejdla, daughter
REGULA, Wilhelm, (Willi) son

REGULA, Antoni (not related)
REGULA, Maria, wife? sister?

REGULA, Wiktoria, born STAWOWY (not related)
REGULA, Wiktoria's father-in-law
REGULA, Wiktoria's mother -in-law

REGULA, Wladyslaw (not related)
REGULA, Rozalia, wife
REITER, Joanna, nun (Sister Zygmunta)
REJCZAK, Walenty
REJCZAK, Antonina, wife

REK, Tadeusz (1906-1968) lawyer
REK, Wanda, (1912-) wife

Tadeusz Rek, resident of Warsaw, representative of the Popular Party, joined the Zegota on Jan 12, 1943, became its vice-president and, with Leon Feiner, member of its Auditorial Commission. He had under his care ca. 300 Jews. His apartment served as an important place of Zegota's meetings and activities. Therefore it could be only a temporary shelter for a few days for some Jews. However, a Jewish woman, Lucyna B., stayed there permanently as a nurse to Wanda's and Tadeusz's child. Tadeusz calculates that some kind of Zegota's help (financial, legal, i.e. issuing false documents, sheltering, medical care, children's care) was being given to 40,000 Jews (50,000 according to Arczynski) in the "General Gouvernment" area (central Poland under German administration). Meanwhile, in the same period, the Bund organization took care of a few hundred Jews. It exerted very energetic pressure on the Delegate in Poland of the Polish Government-in-Exile, in London, to raise the amount of funds allocated to Zegota's operations as well as to undertake a forceful action against the blackmailers and extortionists. As to Wanda, she busied herself with placing homeless Jews with friends and acquaintances. See: Grynberg, op cit. and Prekerowa, op. cit.

REK, Wanda (another one, not related) see NIZIOLEK, Kazimierz , husband

REK, Wladyslaw (not related)
REK, Marianna, wife

REKLAJTIS , (REKRAJTIS ?) Jan (1869-1954)
REKLAJTIS, " Stanislaw (1903-1955) son
REKLAJTIS, " Romana (1908-) Stanislaw's wife

The Reklajtis lived at Swider, near Warsaw. With them there lived also Romana's mother, Ludwika Grzybowski (1880-1964) (q.v.) and a friend of Stanislaw, Tadeusz Zabokrzecki (q.v.) who had to hide from the Gestapo. Before the war Ludwika rented rooms in her house. The Jewish family Bledowski often stayed there. In May 1943 the entire Bledowski family came to Ludwika Grzybowski: Abraham, his wife Regina and daughters Edwarda, Ita and Sabina. In consultation with all the occupants of the house, the Reklajtis family took all five in. As their permanent stay was impossible, Ita and Sabina, who had the best "Aryan" look, rented an apartment at Michalin and sold bread. They brought their parents and hid them in the cellar. All survived the war and emigrated, except Sabina, who died shortly after. See: Grynberg, op. cit.

REMUT, Wojciech
REMUT, Stefania, wife
REMUT, Feliks, son
REMUT, Jerzy, son
REMUT, Jozef, son
REMUT, Kazimierz, son
RENK-MIKULSKI, Danuta see MIKULSKI, Jan & Melania, parents?
RENSKI, Barbara

RESZKA, Klara (Malgorzata) wife
RESZKA, Henryk, son
RESZKA, Maria, daughter
RESZKA, Stefan, son

The Reszka family farmed at Slugocin, Lublin prov. Four brothers Waserman, Bence, Boruch, Jakub and Mojzesz came to them in 1942 and remained till the end of the war, hidden in a bunker in the barn. Jakub went to Paris, the three other brothers to Israel. See: Grynberg, op. cit.

RESZKO, Maryna
RETKA, Tadeusz
RETKA, Magdalena, wife
REWILAK, Tadeusz
ROBAKIEWICZ, Pelagia, wife
RODZIEWICZ, Wladyslawa, wife
RODZIEWICZ, Wiktoria, daughter?

ROGALA, Witold (1914-1967) (not related)
ROGALA, Marianna (1919-) physician

The Rogalas lived in Warsaw with their small son Krzysztof. Witold was the manager of the Warsaw Housing Cooperative. In April 1943, just before the Ghetto Uprising, someone brought them from a shop, a 5 years old girl, Marta Elbinger, then under a Polish name. Soon there appeared in their home her cousin, Lutek, and her mother's sister. They left with the Rogalas addresses of family in the USA and in Palestine. Marta was not hidden; she moved freely as a child of the Rogalas's relatives. In September 1945 the child's aunt, Tusia Gewircman, came for her and took Marta to Israel. In 1948 she wrote that Marta is happy in the school with other children from Poland and that she speaks of the Rogalas often and remembers all the good care, good food and toys, which she got from them. Even before, already in 1946, Jakub Rock, who had left Poland in 1938, wrote from the USA thanking the Rogalas for saving his niece, telling: "People who are ready for a one time heroic effort are relatively many; but people able to sustain the danger for years are very few. It takes an exceptional moral attitude". See: Grynberg, op cit.

ROGALSKI-DZIERZYKRAY, Tadeusz, (not related)

* ROGINSKI, Janina
Janina lived in Wegrow, Siedlce prov. She hid in her barn some Jews. When they were discovered by the military police from Wegrow, they shot her together with the harbored Jews on June 15, 1943. She was awarded posthumously the medal "Righteous Among the Nations" and was mentioned here in the list of "Those Who Paid with their Lives"

ROGOWSKI, Eugenia, wife

The 15 years old girl, Nina Frenkel, after the death of her mother, with whom she escaped the ghetto, roamed the fields in search of refuge. She went to a village near Zloczow, where the Rogowskis harbored already her aunt and cousin. The family accepted her immediately and concealed her in a hole dug under a farm building, although Germans stayed in the Rogowskis' house. The three women saw there the end of the occupation. The couple was conferred their certificate and medal on Oct. 16, 1999 in Cracow, as announced the Israeli Embassy in Poland.

ROGOWSKI-CIOSMAK, Lucyna (not related) see CIOSMAK-BUSZKO, Anna, sister?

ROGOWSKI-FALSKI, Maryla, (not related) see FALSKI, M.
ROGOZINSKI, Alfred, brother
ROGOZINSKI, Wiktor, brother

ROGOZINSKI, Albert (another one, not related)
ROGOZINSKI, Jan (related to the three brothers: Adam, Alfred and Wiktor)
ROGOZINSKI, Salomea, Jan's wife
ROGUSKI, Helena, wife
ROGUSZEWSKI Boleslaw's wife
ROGUSZEWSKI, Marian (Maniek) son?
ROGUSZEWSKI, Stanislawa, wife
ROJ. Julia
ROKOSZ, Franciszka and
ROKOSZ, Stefania, sister?

ROLIRAD, Henryk, alias "ZARSKI", alias "HARRY'

Henryk was originally from Poznan. He became acquainted with Jews in Zbaszyn (Poland) in 1938, while working on behalf of Jewish refugees, escaping from the Third Reich. About ten to twenty thousands of them found themselves in that locality, from which they were released little by little to their different abodes, among whom there was a young woman, Magda Einstein. They were ex-Polish citizens, who having settled in Germany, did not renew their passports, and thus lost their Polish citizenship. They were persecuted during the "Kristallnacht" (November 9-11,1938).

Col. Antoni Smodlibowski, Polish military attach6 in Leipzig (Germany), went to the Germans to protest that persecution. They told him that if he does not stop, he will not leave alive. But the Colonel, to the Germans'- fury, opened the door of the consulate to those Jews, taking into it the old ones and providing tents for the younger ones on its grounds.

Henryk Rolirad, member of the AK, of the Battalion VI, commanded by Captain Henryk Iwanski (q.v.), was put in charge of Jews extricated from the Warsaw ghetto. He led them to shelters on the "Aryan" side and provided them with false documents. During one of these missions, Henryk was arrested. While being transported to prison by the Germans, he was gravely wounded, when some young resistance men tossed a grenade into the truck. Henryk lost consciousness, but regained it when fire broke out. With his leg shattered, he managed to crawl out of the burning truck and reach a nearby store, in which he took shelter. In spite of remaining a cripple, having to walk on crutches; he continued his work on behalf of Jews. Among others he placed Magda Einstein, whom he met in Zbaszyn, with his acquaintance. Three Gestapo men on the street, demanded her identity papers, which she produced (having them from Henryk). But a Volksdeutche arrested Magda and forced her to call Henryk and demand 50,000 zlotys, to be delivered in one hour, an enormous sum of money at that time. Henryk managed to gather it and brought the sum to the blackmailer. Thereafter he placed Magda with his mother in Goclawek. The Volksdeutche, who had arrested Magda before, followed her to that town and broke into the house armed with a revolver. Magda escaped through the-back. Henry and his mother managed once again to gather 6,000 zlotys to get rid of the man. After the war Henryk and Magda married and in 1963, with their daughter, went to Israel. See: Bauminger, Righteous Among the Nations, op. cit.

ROMANEK, Kazimierz
ROMANIUK, Ezechiel
ROMANIUK, Irena, wife
ROMANOWSKI, Henryka, sister
ROMANSEWICZ, Jozefa, nun (Sister HERMANA) (1909-1984)

Sister Hermana was a nun at Turkowice, like Sister Irena, i.e. Antonina Manaszczuk (q.v.). The Sisters Servants of Mary Immaculate, called in Polish "Sluzebniczki" (Little Servants) accepted also boys. This was particularly dangerous, as the Jewish boys were circumcised. Sister Hermana also accompanied Jewish children from Warsaw to Turkowice, making the difficult journey, through Lublin and Chelm, up to the very border of the "General Government" with the Soviet zone, full of dangers and anxiety, especially when there was more than one child. Sister Irena (above) described these trips in detail. Usually it was Jadwiga Piotrowski, (q.v.) from Zegota, who found the children and in consultation with Sister Stanislawa i.e. Aniela Polechajllo (q.v.) Superior at Turkowice, notified the Sisters to come for the children. The children went still through many other dramatic events in the war years of 1944 and 1945. Two of them are now known journalists and one an outstanding chemist. They affirm that the Sisters never betrayed the trust they had in them. See: Kurek, op cit. and Prekerowa, op. cit.

ROMANCZUK, Witold, son

ROMANSKI, Maria (1893-1956)
ROMANSKI, Jakub (1925-1989) son
ROMANSKI, Jozef (1927-1975) son

The family lived in Bochnia. They knew the Jewish farmers Gutfreunds who had four married daughters. Max Selinger, the husband of the eldest one, was a respected friend of Jakub Romanski. In 1941 Gutfreund asked him to take over his farm as he was not allowed to run it anymore. Jakub, 16 years old, maintained contact with the Gutfreunds, now in the ghetto and especially with Max Selinger. He became his liaison with Dr. Morgenbesser, in the Plaszow camp. From the latter, he obtained addresses of people who transported Jews across the border with Hungary. So with Jakub's help the following persons were able to find themselves in Hungary: Max Selinger with his wife and two daughters, Szwarc with his wife, Zygmunt and Artek Feders, Kornberg with his daughter Matylda, Jozef Jakubowicz and Mundek Gretwer. In 1942 the Gestapo was looking for Jakub. He fled to Warsaw and even from there continued to send other Jews across the border: Anna Abeles with her daughter Niusia, Romer with his 15 years old son Marian, Edward Zurek, Dr. Zalewski with his wife and the sisters Bronka and Lonka. See: Grynberg, op. cit.

ROMATOWSKI, Stanislaw see RAMOTOWSKI, Stanislaw
ROSA-KONIECZNY, Honorata see KONIECZNY, Maciej & Marianna, parents

ROSLAN, Aleksander
ROSLAN, Amelia, wife

The Roslans resided in Warsaw with their two children, in a three-room apartment.
An unknown Jewish woman, Hanna, who stole from the ghetto, appeared in their home seeking a way of saving three Gutgold boys, who were her nephews: Jacob, Shalom and David (10, 7, 5). Their mother had died and their father had fled to Russia. Aleksander, even without consulting his wife, offered the woman his apartment as shelter. When she promised him a big reward after the war, he replied: "If we succeed in getting out of the Nazi hell alive, reward me then. If not, what use is money?" And so the boys were smuggled out of the ghetto and came to live with the Roslans. Alexander suggested to Hanna that she also come to them with her relatives. But Hanna wanted to spend the Passover with her co-religionists. The first day of Passover the Nazis launched their "Aktion" and Hanna was deported to Auschwitz. For a time Aleksander could send her some help but soon she vanished there. Jacob and Shalom came down with scarlet fever. Aleksander got them admitted to a hospital, transporting them inside a sofa. Shalom died on the operation table, but Jacob survived. As his recovery necessitated additional expenses, Roslan with his family moved to a one-room apartment to cover the cost of his treatment. When strangers came, the boys hid under the bed or behind the kitchen cabinet. Aleksander bought an ultraviolet lamp to replace the lack of sunshine. Neglecting his own children, he bought them exotic and expensive fruit. Once the Blue Police, alerted by a neighbor, came to check. The Roslans got them drunk and he forgot to search for the Jews. In the Warsaw Uprising the Roslans lost a son. Like all the inhabitants, they were expelled and for half a year wandered with their charges from place to place. After the war Aleksander went with his family and the boys to Germany. They parted there; he left for the USA and the Gutgold brothers went to Israel. In 1962 Jacob, an Israeli nuclear chemist, with his wife and daughter, found them after a 15 years old search, in New York. Alexander stated: "He was just like our own son." Jacob affirms ". I have no words to describe the attitude, devotion and self-sacrifice of this man during all the time we spent in his house (four years)." See: Paldiel, op. cit.

ROSLONIEC, Julian Stefan

Julian took care of ca. thirty (30) Jews in Warsaw. Some of them he took into his bachelor's apartment. When he left for work he had, for their protection, to lock them in. Many others did similarly, often on their own initiative, without ever knowing of Zegota. See: Prekerowa, op. cit.

ROSS, Hilda

Upon her neighbor's request, Hilda took into her apartment a Jewish woman, Aleksandra Cwibaum, whose brother, Kazimierz, also hid there occasionally. Both survived. Information provided by the Israeli Embassy in Warsaw about the awarding of the medal "Righteous Among the Nations" in Warsaw on Jan. 14, 1999.

ROSTKOWSKI, Joanna, wife
ROSTKOWSKI, Michalina, daughter

ROSTKOWSKI, Ludwik , physician (not related)

Dr. Rostkowski, ophthalmologist, with Drs Jan Rutkiewicz (q.v.) and Dr. Tadeusz Stepniewski initiated and edited the "Abecadlo Lekarskie" (Medical ABC). This medical journal reached ca. 100 medical centers. Seconded him his son, Ludwik Jr., a medical student , belonging also to the Coordinating Committee of Democratic and Socialist Doctors in Warsaw (1940-1944). Since 1943 thanks to Marek Arczynski (q.v) the Committee cooperated with it Emilia Hizowa (alias "Barbara") and Celina Jezierska-Tyszko (alias "Celinka"). The latter toured several times in a week secret "letter boxes"where the doctors deposited the addresses of (Jewish) patients who needed medical attention. She transmitted them to Ludwik Rostkowski Jr. for his father. The son often made the first visit of reconnaissance. Ludwik Sr. contacted the necessary specialists. So the cooperating doctors had from several to several dozens vists to make by month, sometimes every day, often bringing beside the medical care, also free medicines, food, garments and money from Zegota. They issued also certificates of injection against typhus necessary to all, including Jews, to receive food rations, and death certificates for the organization of the burial. Dr. Rostkowski, with his wife Janina , a nurse, and their son harbored also Jews also in their house. They had to flee from it, alerted that they are wanted by the Gestapo, but did not stop their activities up to the Warsaw Uprising (Aug. 1, 1944). For more information about the Committee look also under the name of Dr. Stanislaw Popowski (q.v.). See: Bartoszewski & Lewin, op. cit. and especially Prekerowa, op. cit. .

ROSTOCKI, Ignacy's mother, Stanislawa IWAN
ROSZAK, Celina (ROSZEK, Cecylia ?)

ROSCISZEWSKI Lech Marian (not related)
ROSCISZEWSKI, Lech Marian's wife
ROSCISZEWSKI, Janina, daughter

ROSCISZEWSKI-ROTHENBURG, Witold (not related) & Anna see ROTHENBURG, W.A..

ROWINSKI, Aleksandra (1894-1981) physician

Dr. Aleksandra worked in Warsaw, lately as the Chief of the Children's Department in her hospital. She was highly decorated. In 1942 she took into her flat two Jewish women doctors, whom she knew from the university: Dr. Roza Herman and Dr. Marylka. In mid-1944 a Blue policeman advised her that she was watched and suspected of hiding Jews. The two doctors had to leave. Dr. Roza found a shelter on an estate in the province of Lublin. Both survived. In 1985 Dr. Roza stated that Aleksandra not only sheltered and fed them; she even gave her the use of her own bed, installing herself in the bathroom. She devoted herself also to others. In her memory she remains as an outstanding personality, as a physician and as a human being. Besides her, other physicians in Warsaw were also particularly meritorious in helping Jews: Dr. F. Kanabus (q.v.), Assistant Prof. Stanislaw Kapuscinski, who perished in Auschwitz, Dr. Ignacy Olesinski, Dr. Stanislaw Swital (q.v.) Dr. Szalecki-Wojtowicz, Dr. Tadeusz Badniak. Franciszek Raszeja, Professor of Medicine in the Poznan University, went to the ghetto with a proper pass to give medical attention to a patient. Some Germans burst into the room and killed both the patient and his doctor. See: Bartoszewski & Lewin, op. cit., Grynberg, op. cit.

ROZEN, Zofia Katarzyna

ROZWADOWSKI Dionizy's wife
ROZNIECKI, Franciszek
ROG, Michal
ROZANOWSKI, Stefania, wife

ROZANSKI, Maria(nna)

Marianna lived at the presbytery of her brother, the priest Stanislaw Szczepanski at Wilga, near Garwolin. Germans organized in that locality a forced labor camp, which they liquidated in 1941. The sisters Lea and Luba Berliner from Skierniewice escaped from that camp and came to the presbytery for help. When Germans searching for the fugitives appeared at the kitchen door, Marianna sent the two girls by another exit to church and invited the six soldiers with their officer to a meal. The priest gave the girls false birth certificates, thanks to which they both went to Germany for work as Christian Poles. Marianna's help benefited also other Jews like Dr. Szymon Goldszmit and his wife. Marianna obtained false documents for them and placed the doctor with her acquaintances in Warsaw. She also took his wife to her mother's in Lowicz. She likewise helped Dr. Berman and his wife. The Berliner parents left some valuables with their physician in Skierniewice. When Luba asked him to return them, that doctor called a Blue policeman to take her to the ghetto. Marianna bribed him and facilitated her release later. She said after the war that she did it not for material gains, but out of humanitarian and religious concerns. See: Grynberg, op. cit.

ROZECKI-GUTOWSKI, Janina see GUTOWSKI, Leonia, mother?

ROZEWICZ, Jozef (1898-)
ROZEWICZ, Anna (1902-1958) wife
ROZEWICZ, Emil (1926-) son
ROZEWICZ, Ferdynand Michal, son

The Rozewicz family lived at Jaworowo, Stanislawow prov. Emil Rozewicz brought two girls from the Bolechowo ghetto. They knew him as they were from the nearby village of Sulkow. The family arranged for them a shelter in the loft of the stable where they stayed up to the end of the occupation. See: Grynberg, op. cit.

ROZYCKI-GARGASZ, Zofia see GARGASZ, Jakub, husband

ROZYCKI, Wladyslaw (not related)

ROZYCKI, Zbigniew (not related)
ROZYCKI, Zofia, wife
ROZYK, Eugeniusz (does not appear on the 1999 List, but did before)


Genowefa Rudnicki from Boryslaw helped Jews from Lvov. She led out of the Lvov ghetto Szoszana Tuchfeld, Adela Zalcberg, Markus Ejlberg and his brother Henryk. She made for them a shelter and provided them with food till the end of the war. Henryk Ejlberg went to Argentina, the others to Israel. Genowefa also went to Israel and married Markus Ejlberg. See: Grynberg, op. cit.

RUDNICKI, Maria (not related)
RUDNICKI, Konrad, son

RUDOWICZ-REISS, Hanna (1910-)

Hanna resided in Lvov. Together with Marta Dicker-Srebrnik and Helena Radwanski-Bielec she harbored and fed seven fugitives Jews, who escaped in August 1942 from a transport from the Lvov ghetto to Belzec. After the war Hanna married one of the men she saved, Mosze Reiss and went with him to Israel, as also did Marta Dicker Srebrnik. See: Grynberg, op. cit.

RUDYK-KOWALIK, Aurelia see KOWALIK, Franciszek & Teofila, parents?
RUDZKI, Barbara see STRZELECKI, Mrs., mother
RUP-DOMAGALA, Maria, see DOMAGALA, Jan, husband
RUPNIEWSKI-NOWINSKI, Danuta see NOWINSKI, Waclaw & Janina, parents?
RUSIECKI-LESINSKI, Czeslawa see LESINSKI, Wladyslaw & Aleksandra, parents?
RUSINSKI, Zbigniew

RUSZCZYNSKI-OSTROWSKI, Maria (not related)
RUSZKOWSKI, Marianna, wife

RUSZKOWSKI, Weronika (not related)
RUSZKOWSKI, Aurelia,daughter
RUSZKOWSKI, Danuta, daughter

RUTKIEWICZ, Jan, physician
RUTKIEWICZ, Natalia,nurse, wife

Dr. Jan Rutkiewicz, internist, edited "Abecadlo Lekarskie" ("A Medical ABC") a medical journal, identifying its issues by letters of the alphabet. Others in the editorial staff of the journal were Dr. Ludwik Rostkowski, and Dr. Tadeusz Stepniewski. It was strongly in favor of helping Jews, seen simply as human beings, needing help without any distinction of race or religion and as allies in the struggle against the common enemy. The Coordinating Committee of Democratic and Socialist Doctors was established in Warsaw in the second part of 1940. It included several dozen-health specialists. It worked by trios of physicians cooperating between them. One of them had contacts with a superior trio and each of them organized his own trio, whose work he supervised and to which he transmitted the instructions from above. To the patients a doctor came not only with his medical tools and medication, but often also with garments, food and money from Zegota. Home visits were numerous: from several to several dozen per month, for each doctor. In certain periods there was not a day without visits to "non-Aryans". Natalia Rutkiewicz was one of the nurses belonging to this select group, along with other nurses. The medical student. See: Bartoszewski & Lewin, op. cit and Prekerowa, op. cit.


RYBAK, Franciszka (not related)

Franciszka gave shelter, food and sewing work to Sara and to her betrothed, Harry Mostysser. She treated them whole-heartedly and in a friendly way, caring also for their medical needs. The announcement of their decoration as "Righteous" on May 6, 1999 in Lublin comes from the Israeli Embassy in Poland.

RYBAK, Janina (not related)

RYBAK, Jozefa (not related)
RYBAK, Waclaw, son?
RYBAK, Wladyslawa, wife (the last two missing in the 1999 List)

The family of Jozefa Rybak took part in the saving of brothers Izaak and Jakub then Steger, who had been harbored before by several other Polish families. Both survived. The conferring on the Rybaks of the Yad Vashem medals and certificates as "Righteous" by the Israeli Ambassador in Poland, Yigal Antebi, took place in Warsaw on Dec. 15, 1999.

RYBCZYNSKI, Irena see OSTROWSKI, Janina, mother

RYBICKI, Kazimierz

Kazimierz resided in Warsaw. In his house lived his daughter who married the Jew Gorynski. Beside her husband there lived also his mother. In October 1943 the entire family was arrested and shot. In Kazimierz's house there stayed also Eda Wandstein, who luckily managed to escape when the Gestapo came for them. She survived and left Poland. Kazimierz, recognized in 1999 by Yad Vashem as "Righteous", got his medal on May 1st, 2000 in Warsaw, as announced the Israeli Embassy in Poland.

RYBICKI-SREDNICKI, Irena see SREDNICKI, Stanislaw, husband
RYBICKI-KIELAN, Krystyna see KIELAN, Franciszek & Krystyna parents
RYBUS, Feliksa

RYCHLEWICZ, Wladyslaw, professor
RYCHLEWICZ-NOSKOWICZ, Irena (-1990) daughter
The Rychlewiczes lived in Warsaw. They hid in their apartment 3 Jewish families, seven (7) people. All survived. After the war Irena married one of the men they saved, Mr. Noskowicz and in 1957 left with him for Israel. See: Grynberg, op. cit.


Antoni lived in a village near Sambor. Nearby lived the Erdman family: the parents, two daughters and a 16 years old son, Icchak. In August 1942 the Germans deported the Jews to the Sambor ghetto, the Erdmans among them. Their son hid in Antoni's house, but could not stay there for long. Jan, Antoni's son, gave him his own birth certificate and took him to Zdrohec, near Zabno and helped him to settle there with a farmer, as Jan Rychlik. In 1957 Icchak went to Israel. See: Grynberg, op. cit.

RYGALSKI, Wladyslaw and
RYGALSKI, Zbigniew (brother? son?)
RYKOWSKI, Izabella Zofia
RYKOWSKI, Janusz, son
RYKOWSKI, Jadwiga,Janusz's wife

RYMARZ, Jozef (1898-1981)
RYMARZ, Halina, wife

The Rymarz couple resided in Warsaw. Jozef was a regular army officer and took part in the September '39 campaign. During the occupation he was a member of the AK. He brought food to the Griffenberg couple, which owned the house in which the Rymarz couple stayed. In 1942 the six (6) members of the Gorski family came to them for help: Miriam and Mosze, their 3 year old baby girl, Mosze's father and brother, and also Henryk Cynamon who managed to escape from the ghetto. They knew the Gorskis from before the war. Rymarz took them into his home. When it became impossible to keep them longer, he moved them to his acquaintance, Kazimierz and Irena Opel (q.v.) living at Bialogon Kielecki. Soon people started to talk about Jews. Opel moved them elsewhere and the Gorskis joined the partisans in the nearby forest. Gorski's brother, Leon and Henryk Cynamon returned to Warsaw and were deported to Treblinka. After the war the Gorskis settled in Israel. See: Grynberg, op. cit.

RYNIEWICZ, Bronislawa, wife
RYNIEWICZ, Danuta, daughter
RYNIEWICZ, Helena, daughter
RYNIEWICZ, Maria, daughter

RYSINSKI, Jozefa, alias ZIUTKA (1922-)

"Ziutka" was a courier for the Cracow branch of Zegota and as such one of the bravest and the most dedicated among them all. These men and women reached forced labor camps like Plaszow, Pustkow near Debica, Szebnia near Jaslo, Skarzysko-Kamienna, Pionki and even the Auschwitz complex of camps as well as the Janowski camp near Lvov. Large quantities of food bought on the black market by Zegota, like flour, beans and groats were thus supplied to the Plaszow camp. When its inmates were transferred to Brynica in the west Sudetes in Czechoslovakia, the Poles sent them food and clothing. Ziutka, beside these items, brought to the camps letters to and from the inmates, the "grypsy". Several times she went to Lvov and in 1943 she escorted from there to Cracow the known Jewish writer, Maksymilian Boruchowicz, i.e. Michal Borwicz, who had escaped from the Janowski camp. From that camp Ziutka extricated a 12 years old girl, Janina Hescheles. Caught on one of those trips, she was brutally tortured and sent to the Plaszow camp. See: Bartoszewski & Lewin, op. cit., Grynberg, op. and Prekerowa, op. cit.

RYSZEWSKI, Henryk (1900-1072) journalist
RYSZEWSKI, Irena (1900-1980) wife
RYSZEWSKI-BRUSIKIEWICZ, Zofia (1927-) daughter

Henryk completed his studies for the priesthood but was not ordained. He used to write for papers considered anti-Semitic, but seeing the effects of racism he had a change of heart. He harbored in his apartment in Warsaw thirteen (13) Jews. Before doing it he asked his 12 years old daughter, Zofia, if she did not mind sheltering Jews. From Lvov came Aleksander Artmanowicz, Leon Fal and Izak Pinalis with his wife, and from Lodz Leon Funt with his wife and a small daughter, also Markus Kasman with his brother-in-law, Anna and Roza Lewin, Lipa Szymkiewicz, Ludwik Opal with his wife. When a blackmailer approached Henryk, he replied to him: "As I do not get any profits from my Jews, I can offer you only 400 zlotys monthly". His daughter, Zofia, in order to keep the secret, was passive at school refusing to join her friends in their underground activities, bringing thus their disapproval on herself. See: Grynberg, op. cit. and Lukas, op. cit.: "Did the Children Cry"

RYS, Jan Jozef (1920-)

Jan lived in Boryslaw. During the liquidation of its ghetto, came over to him Adolf Wagner asking for shelter. With him came his wife Roza and their 2 years old baby girl, Felicja and his mother. Soon arrived still others: The Zarensky couple and Dr. Henryk Kudysz. Jan prepared a shelter for them in his wood shed. Eight (8) additional Jews joined them after a few weeks; among them was Dr. Bronislaw Estreicher with his wife, and 10 years old son Marian as well as the engineer Polajner with his wife. In March 1944 a 13th person, Roza Symchowicz joined the twelve. Their meals were prepared by Jan and by Janina Niemiec (q.v.) who lived there. They brought every night 12 buckets of drinking water from a public hydrant, located 50 meters from the shed, and took wastes at nighttime to the W.C. outside the shed. Jan used to bring food for all of them by three different routes, so as not to attract attention. To some Ukrainian shops he used to bring flour for sale to make them think that he made a business of it. Just before the arrival of the Red Army on Aug. 8, 1944 they faced a great danger: the retreating German soldiers installed themselves in the yard and in the loft of the shed, just above the hidden Jews. Fortunately all of them walked out of the shelter in good health and "that was his greatest life success up to now" as Jan called it. Se: Grynberg, op. cit.

RYTEL, Zygmunt

Sylwia, a theosophist, was one of the most active persons in saving Jews. Some she harbored in her home like Mrs. Zajdler and Helena who came to her from Dr. Zofia Garlicki, who was later executed in Auschwitz for helping Jews. For others she procured all kinds of false documents through her wide contacts with the underground, or, due to her nice smile and calm appearance from the most unlikely persons, such as a Volksdeutche woman doctor. She transferred money from Zegota to many Jews, bringing in return the original receipts for it signed with their true Jewish names. This alone was most dangerous. See: Prekerowa, op. cit., Smolski, op. cit., and her own account, mostly about the merits of others in Bartoszewski & Lewin, op. cit. (pp 170-174)

RZEPECKI, Apoloniusz

RZEPECKI, Bronislaw (not related)

Bronislaw was the secretary of the Commune office at Olesnica, Kielce prov. In 1941 he started there a branch of the future AK. Nevertheless he took into his home the Mandelsman family, whom he knew before. Antoni Krol, a parish priest from Olesnica and Stanislaw Krawczyk from the village of Strzelce seconded him in that endeavor. After the war the Wandelsmans left for Israel, but searched several years for their benefactors and when they found them, wrote to them: "Our dear ones, we are here well in all respects, but we are longing sometimes for you people of intellect and heart". The priest Antoni Krol and Stanislaw Krawczyk are not recognized as "Righteous". See: Grynberg, op. cit.

RZEPECKI, Jan (not related)

RZEPECKI, Stanislaw (not related)
RZEPECKI-MIGDEN, Apolonia, wife
RZEPKA Franciszka
RZOTTKY, Franciszek